Section I Use of English
What impact can mobile phones have on their users' health? Many individuals are concerned about the supposed ill effects caused by radiation from handsets and base stations, the lack of credible evidence of any harm. But evidence for the beneficial effects of mobile phones on health is rather more . Indeed, a systematic review by Rifat Atun and his colleagues at Imperial College, rounds up of the use of text-messaging in the of health care. These uses three categories: efficiency gains; public-health gains; and direct benefits to patients by text-messaging into treatment regimes.
Using texting to efficiency is not profound science, but big savings can be achieved. Several carried out in England have found that the use of text-messaging reminders the number of missed appointments with family doctors by 26-39%, and the number of missed hospital appointments by 33-50%. If such schemes were nationally, this would translate annual savings of ￡256-364 million.
Text messages can also be a good way to deliver public-health information, particularly to groups are hard to reach by other means. Text messages have been used in
, there are the uses of text-messaging as part of a treatment regime. These involve sending reminders to patients to their medicine, or to encourage accordance with exercise regimes. However, Dr. Rifat notes that the evidence for the effectiveness of such schemes is generally , and more quantitative research is
1. [A] so [B] even [C] despite [D] and
2. [A] interesting [B] abundant [C] clear [D] reasonable
3. [A] went [B] came [C] performed [D] turned
4. [A] approaches [B] situations [C] problems [D] examples
5. [A] reality [B] reorganization [C] delivery [D] discovery
6. [A] fall into [B] sum up [C] associate with [D] subject to
7. [A] cooperating [B] incorporating [C] adapting [D] adopting
8. [A] rise [B] boost [C] produce [D] encourage
9. [A] questions [B] incidents [C] cases [D] trials
10. [A] reduces [B] degrades [C] deserves [D] drops
11. [A] called upon [B] switched to [C] rolled out [D] went through
12. [A] into [B] for [C] on [D] from
13. [A] what [B] whose [C] which [D] who
14. [A] ask [B] inform [C] adopt [D] contact
15. [A] campaign [B] event [C] decision [D] communication
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A]，[B]，[C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Prudent investors learned long ago that putting your eggs into lots of baskets reduces risk. Conservationists have now hit on a similar idea: a population of endangered animals will have a better chance of survival if it is divided into interconnected groups. The prospects of the species will be better because the chance that all the constituent subpopulations will die out at the same time is low. And, in the long term, it matters little if one or two groups do disappear, because immigrants from better-faring patches will eventually reestablish the species' old haunts.
One endangered species divided in just this way is the world's rarest carnivore, the Ethiopian wolf, which lives high in the meadows of the Bale Mountains. Just 350 exist in three pockets of meadow connected by narrow' valleys in the Bale Mountains National Park, with a further 150 outside this area.
Two of the main threats to the Ethiopian wolf come from diseases carried by domestic dogs. One of these, rabies, is of particular concern because it is epidemic in the dog population. At first blush, vaccinating the wolves against rabies seems a simple solution. It would be ambitious, because the prevailing thinking — that all individuals matter and therefore all outbreaks of disease should be completely halted — implies that a large proportion of wolves would need to be vaccinated.
Dan Haydon, of the University of Glasgow, and his colleagues believe that conservation biologists should think differently. With the exception of humans, species are important but individuals are not. Some outbreaks of disease can be tolerated. In a paper published this week in Nature, they recast the mathematics of vaccination with this in mind.
On epidemiologists' standard assumption that every individual counts, vaccination programmes are intended to prevent epidemics by ensuring that each infected animal, on average, passes the disease on to less than one healthy animal. This implies that around two-thirds of all the wolves would need to be vaccinated. A programme that sought to save a species rather than individuals would allow each infected wolf to pass the disease on to more than one healthy animal and hence require fewer vaccinations. Dr Haydon and his colleagues have calculated, using data from a rabies outbreak in 2003, that vaccinating between 10% and 25% would suffice, provided veterinarians gave jabs to those wolves living in the narrow valleys that connect the subpopulations.
If the threat of rabies arose every five years, targeting all the wolves in the corridors would cut the risk of extinction over a 20-year period by fourfold. If this were backed up by vaccinating a mere 10% of the wolves in the three connected meadows, the chance of extinction would drop to less than one in 1,000. Saving a few seems to be an efficient way of protecting the many.
21. By citing prudent investors' idea, the author wants to illustrate that___________.
[A] conservationists got inspirations from it.
[B] endangered animals can be protected in a similar way.
[C] the prospects of some species depend on conservation.
[D] the subpopulations will die without being put into different groups.
22. The Ethiopian wolf___________.
[A] is facing the risk of extinction as the rarest carnivore.
[B] is separated into three groups to achieve survival.
[C] lives in narrow valleys in the Bale Mountains.
[D] has altogether 350 alive in the world.
23. The idea that nearly all the wolves would need to be vaccinated___________..
[A] is due to that rabies carried by dogs is epidemic.
[B] is very easy to be realized by local medical administration.
[C] is based on the thinking that every wolf is necessarily protected.
[D] is supported by Dan Haydon of the University of Glasgow.
24. From the last two paragraphs, we know that___________.
[A] if each individual counts, one-third of wolves have to be vaccinated.
[B] Dr. Haydon proved epidemiologists' standard assumption is right.
[C] to vaccinate 10% to 25% of wolves living in the connected meadows is enough.
[D] it takes 20 years to reduce risk of extinction if all the wolves are targeted.
25. The main purpose of the text is to___________.
[A] show the dangers Ethiopian wolves are facing with.
[B] inform people of the prospects Ethiopian wolves.
[C] teach how to divide Ethiopian wolves into groups.
[D] tell how to protect Ethiopian wolves from rabies.
It is no longer just dirty blue-collar jobs in manufacturing that are being sucked offshore but also white-collar service jobs, which used to be considered safe from foreign competition. Telecoms charges have tumbled, allowing workers in far-flung locations to be connected cheaply to customers in the developed world. This has made it possible to offshore services that were once non-tradable. Morgan Stanley's Mr. Roach has been drawing attention to the fact that the "global labor arbitrage" is moving rapidly to the better kinds of jobs. It is no longer just basic data processing and call centers that are being outsourced to low-wage countries, but also software programming, medical diagnostics, engineering design, law, accounting, finance and business consulting. These can now be delivered electronically from anywhere in the world, exposing skilled white-collar workers to greater competition.
The standard retort to such arguments is that outsourcing abroad is too small to matter much. So far fewer than lm American service-sector jobs have been lost to off-shoring. Forrester Research forecasts that by 2015 a total of 3.4m jobs in services will have moved abroad, but that is tiny compared with the 30m jobs destroyed and created in America every year. The trouble is that such studies allow only for the sorts of jobs that are already being off-shored, when in reality the proportion of jobs that can be moved will rise as IT advances and education improves in emerging economies.
Alan Blinder, an economist at Princeton University, believes that most economists are underestimating the disruptive effects of off-shoring, and that in future two to three times as many service jobs will be susceptible to off-shoring as in manufacturing. This would imply that at least 30% of all jobs might be at risk. In practice the number of jobs off-shored to China or India is likely to remain fairly modest. Even so, the mere threat that they could be shifted will depress wages:
Moreover, says Mr. Blinder, education offers no protection. Highly skilled accountants, radiologists or computer programmers now have to compete with electronically delivered competition from abroad, whereas humble taxi drivers, janitors and crane operators remain safe from off-shoring. This may help to explain why the real median wage of American graduates hat fallen by 6% since 2000, a bigger decline than in average wages.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, the pay gap between low-paid, low-skilled workers and high-paid, high-skilled workers widened significantly. But since then, according to a study by David Autor, Lawrence Katz and Melissa Kearney, in America, Britain and Germany workers at the bottom as well as at the top have done better than those in the middle-income group. Office cleaning cannot be done by workers in India. It is the easily standardized skilled jobs in the middle, such as accounting, that are now being squeezed hardest. A study by Bradford Jensen and Lori Kletzer, at the Institute for International Economics in Washington D. C., confirms that workers in tradable services that are exposed to foreign competition tend to be more skilled than workers in non-tradable services and tradable manufacturing industries.
26. To off-shore services that were once non-tradable results from ___________.
[A] the blue-collar job market
[B] the geographic location of the Underdeveloped world
[C] the fierce competition among skilled workers
[D] the dive of telecoms fee
27. Which of the following statements is the typical reply concerning off-shoring?
[A] Service-sector has sustained a great loss.
[B] White-collar workers will not have a narrow escape.
[C] Most economists underestimated the effects of off-shoring.
[D] Outsourcing abroad has no significant impact.
28. According to the text, Forrester Research Prediction might be different if ___________.
[A] outsourcing abroad is large enough to matter much
[B] the proportion of jobs that can be moved will rise
[C] more comprehensive factors are taken into account
[D] education improvement in emerging economies plays a role
29. The narrative of the text in the last three paragraphs concentrates on ___________.
[A] the standard retort to the arguments
[B] off-shoring and the resulting income
[C] the future off-shoring
[D] the counter-measures at hand
30. Which of the following could be the best title for the text?
[A] Business consulting.
[B] Blue-collar jobs.
[C] Non-tradable services.
[D] White-collar blues.
The mythology of a culture can provide some vital insights into the beliefs and values of that culture. By using fantastic and sometimes incredible stories to create an oral tradition by which to explain the wonders of the natural world and teach lessons to younger generations, a society exposes those ideas and concepts held most important. Just as important as the final lesson to be gathered from the stories, however, are the characters and the roles they play in conveying that message.
Perhaps the epitome of mythology and its use as a tool to pass on cultural values can be found in Aesop's Fables, told and retold during the era of the Greek Empire. Aesop, a slave who won the favor of the court through his imaginative and descriptive tales, almost exclusively used animals to fill the roles in his short stories. Humans, when at all present, almost always played the part of bumbling fools struggling to learn the lesson being presented. This choice of characterization allows us to see that the Greeks placed wisdom on a level slightly beyond humans, implying that deep wisdom and understanding is a universal quality sought by, rather than steanning from, human beings.
Aesop's fables illustrated the central themes of humility and self-reliance, reflecting the importance of those traits in early Greek society. The folly of humans was used to contrast against the ultimate goal of attaining a higher level of understanding and awareness of truths about nature and humanity. For example, one notable fable features a fox repeatedly trying to reach a bunch of grapes on a very high vine. After failing at several attempts, the fox gives up, making up its mind that the grapes were probably sour anyway. The fable's lesson, that we often play down that which we can't achieve so as to make ourselves feel better, teaches the reader or listener in an entertaining way about one of the weaknesses of the human psyche.
The mythology of other cultures and societies reveal the underlying traits of their respective cultures just as Aesop's fables did. The stories of Roman gods, Aztec ghosts and European elves all served to train ancient generations those lessons considered most important to their community, and today they offer a powerful looking glass by which to evaluate and consider the contextual environment in which those culture existed.
31. The author appears to view fables as ______.
[A] the most interesting and valuable form of mythology
[B] entertaining yet serious subjects of study
[C] a remnant tool of past civilizations, but not often used in the modern age
[D] the primary method by which ancient values and ideas were transmitted between generations
32. The way that fables were used in the past is most similar to today's ______.
[A] fairy tales that entertain children at home
[B] stories in children's school textbooks that reinforce the lesson
[C] science documentaries that explain how nature works
[D] movies that depict animals as having human characteristics
33. The main purpose of paragraph 3 is to ______.
[A] examine how one of Aesop's fables sheds light on certain facets of Greek belief
[B] dissect one of Aesop's fables in order to study the elements that make up Greek mythology
[C] learn from the lesson presented in one of Aesop's most well-known fables
[D] illustrate a fable typical of Aesop's style, so as to examine how one goes about studying the meaning behind it
34. The author names the Roman, Aztec and European cultures in order to ______.
[A] identify other cultures in which fables were the primary method by which to pass on traditions and values
[B] explicitly name the various types of characters in those culture's fables
[C] stress that mythology was used by cultures other than the Greeks to convey societal morals
[D] establish them, in addition to the Greeks, as the societies most notable for their mythology
35. The main point of this text is ______.
[A] Aesop's fables provide a valuable glimpse into early Greek thought and beliefs
[B] the most efficient and reliable way to study the values system of an ancient culture is through study of its mythology
[C] without a thorough examination of a society's fables and other mythology, a cultural study on that society would be only partial
[D] through the study of a culture's mythological tradition, one can discern some of the underlying beliefs that shaped those stories
Much has been written about poverty but none of the accounts seem to get at the root of the problem. It must be noted that the debilitating effects of poverty are not only the result of lack of money but are also the result of powerlessness.The poor are subject to their social situation instead of being able to affect it through action，that is，through behavior that flows from an individual's decisions and plans. In other words，when social scientists have reported on the psychological consequences of poverty，it seems reasonable to believe that they have described the psychological consequences of powerlessness. The solution to poverty most frequently suggested is to help the poor secure more money without otherwise changing the present power relationships. This appears to implement the idea of equality while avoiding any unnecessary threat to the established centers of power. But since the consequences of poverty are related to powerlessness，not to the absolute supply of money available to the poor，and since the amount of power purchasable with a given supply of money decreases as a society acquires a large supply of goods and services，the solution of raising the incomes of the poor is likely，unless accompanied by other measures，to be ineffective in a wealthy society.
In order to reduce poverty — related psychological and social problems in the United States，the major community will have to change its relationship to neighborhoods of poverty in such fashion that families in the neighborhoods have a greater interest in the broader society and can more successfully participate in the decision-making process of the surrounding community. Social action to help the poor should have the following characteristics：the poor should see themselves as the source of the action;the action should effect in major ways the preconceptions of institutions and persons who define the poor;the action should demand much in effect or skill;the action should be successful and the successful self-originated important action should increase the feeling of potential worth and individual power of individuals who are poor.
The only initial resource which a community should provide to neighborhoods of poverty should be on a temporary basis and should consist of organizers who will enable the neighborhoods quickly to create powerful，independent，democratic organizations of the poor. Through such organizations，the poor will then negotiate with the outsiders for resources and opportunities without having to submit to concurrent control from outside.
36. By“powerless”(sentence 2，Para 1)，the author most probably means that the poor__________.
[A] have no right to make individual decisions and plans
[B] can not exercise control over other groups of people
[C] are not in a condition to change their present situation
[D] are too weak to resist any social situation imposed on them
37. The author expresses his opinion in the first paragraph that _________.
[A] the hopeless condition of the poor is caused by their powerlessness rather than lack of money
[B] great efforts should be made to help poor to secure more money without changing present power relationships
[C] it is no use raising the incomes of the poor while not improve their state of powerlessness
[D] in helping the poor attention should be paid to avoiding any unnecessary threat to the established centers of power
38. According to the author，the primary role of the major community in helping the neighborhoods of poverty is _______.
[A] to provide long-term assistance from outside
[B] to offer necessary opportunities of securing more money
[C] to carry out more social programs in the neighborhoods
[D] to lend experienced advice in the formation of democratic self-help organizations
39. What does the word“concurrent”(Para. 3)most probably mean?
40. The main purpose of the author in writing the passage is _______.
[A] to criticize the present methods employed to help the poor
[B] to analyze the social and psychological aspects of poverty
[C] to propose a way in which the poor can be more effectively helped
[D] to describe the attitude of the community towards the poor
In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A – G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Should doctor-assisted suicide ever be a legal option? It involves the extreme measure of taking the life of a terminally ill patient when the patient is in extreme pain and the chances for recovery appear to be hopeless. Those who argue against assisted suicide do so by considering the roles of the patient, the doctor, and nature in these situations.
Should the patient take an active role in assisted suicide? When a patient is terminally ill and in great pain, those who oppose assisted suicide say that it should not be up to that patient to decide what his or her fate will be.(41)___________________________________________.
What role should the doctor have? Doctors, when taking the Hippocratic oath, swear to preserve life at all costs, and it is their ethical and legal duty to follow both the spirit and the letter of this oath. It is their responsibilities to heal the sick, and in the cases when healing is not possible, then the doctor is obliged to make the dying person comfortable. Doctors are trained never to hasten death. (42)___________________________________________. Doctors are also, by virtue of their humanness, capable of making mistakes. Doctors could quite possibly say, for instance, that a cancer patient was terminal, and then the illness could later turn out not to be so serious. There is always an element of doubt concerning the future outcome of human affairs.(43)________________________________________.
These general concerns of those who oppose assisted suicide are valid in certain contexts of the assisted-suicide question. For instance, patients cannot always be certain of their medical conditions. Pain clouds judgment, and so the patient should not be the sole arbiter of her or his own destiny. Patients do not usually choose the course of their medical treatment, so they shouldn't be held completely responsible for decisions related to it. Doctors are also fallible, and it is understandable that they would not want to make the final decision about when death should occur. (44)__________________________________________.
I believe that blindly opposing assisted suicide does no one a service. If someone is dying of cancer and begging to be put out of his or her misery, and someone gives that person a deadly dose of morphine that seems merciful rather than criminal. If we can agree to this, then I think we could also agree that having a doctor close by measuring the dosage and advising the family and friends is a reasonable request. (45)____________________________________________.
Life is indeed precious, but an inevitable part of life is death, and it should be precious, too. If life has become an intolerable pain and intense suffering, then it seems that in order to preserve dignity and beauty, one should have the right to end her or his suffering quietly, surely, and with family and friends nearby.
[A] If one simply withholds treatment, it may take the patient longer to die, and so he may suffer more than he would if more direct action were taken and a lethal injection given.
[B] The third perspective to consider when thinking about assisted suicide is the role of nature. Life is precious. Many people believe that it is not up to human beings to decide when to end their own or another's life. Only nature determines when it is the right time for a person to die. To assist someone in suicide is not only to break criminal laws, but to break divine laws as well.
[C] Since doctors are trained to prolong life, they usually do not elect to take it by prescribing assisted suicide.
[D] There are greater powers at work that determine when a person dies, for example, nature. Neither science nor personal preference should take precedence over these larger forces.
[E] Without the doctor’s previous treatment, the person would surely be dead already. Doctors have intervened for months or even years, so why not sanction this final, merciful intervention?
[F] There is no single, objectively correct answer for everyone as to when, if at all, one’s life becomes all things considered a burden and unwanted. If self-determination is a fundamental value, then the great variability among people on this question makes it especially important that individuals control the manner, circumstances, and timing of their death and dying.
[G] Those who oppose assisted suicide believe that doctors who do help terminally ill patients die are committing a crime, and they should be dealt with accordingly.
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41 – 45, you are requirec to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A – G to fill in each numbered box. Two paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)
[A] This work, though, were relatively small-scale. Now, a much larger study has found that discrimination plays a role in the pay gap between male and female scientists at British universities.
[B] Besides pay, her study also looked at the "glass-ceiling" effect -- namely that at all stages of a woman's career she is less likely than her male colleagues to be promoted. Between postdoctoral and lecturer level, men are more likely to be promoted than women are, by a factor of between 1.04 and 2.45. Such differences are bigger at higher grades, with the hardest move of all being for a woman' to settle into a professorial chair.
[C] Seven years ago, a group of female scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced a piece of research showing that senior women professors in the institute's school of science had lower salaries and received fewer resources for research than their male counterparts did. Discrimination against female scientists has cropped up elsewhere. One study—conducted in Sweden, of all places—showed that female medical-research scientists had to be twice as good as men to win research grants.
[D] Sara Connolly, a researcher at the University of East Anglia's school of economics, has been analyzing the results of a survey of over 7,000 scientists and she has just presented her findings at this year's meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Norwich. She found that the average pay gap between male and female academics working in science, engineering and technology is around ￡ 1,500 ($ 2,850) a year.
[E] To prove the point beyond doubt, Dr Connolly worked out how much of the overall pay differential was explained by differences such as seniority, experience and age, and how much was unexplained, and therefore suggestive of discrimination. Explicable differences amounted to 77% of the overall pay gap between the sexes. That still left a substantial 23% gap in pay, which Dr Connolly attributes to discrimination.
[F] That is not, of course, irrefutable proof of discrimination. An alternative hypothesis is that the courses of men's and women's lives mean the gap is caused by something else; women taking "career breaks" to have children, for example, and thus rising more slowly through the hierarchy. Unfortunately for that idea, Dr Connolly found that men are also likely to earn more within any given grade of the hierarchy. Male professors, for example, earn over ￡ 4,000 a year more than female ones.
[G] Of course, it might be that, at each grade, men do more work than women, to make themselves more eligible for promotion. But that explanation, too, seems to be wrong. Unlike the previous studies, Dr Connolly's compared the experience of scientists in universities with that of those in other sorts of laboratory. It turns out that female academic researchers face more barriers to promotion, and have a wider gap between their pay and that of their male counterparts, than do their sisters in industry or research institutes independent of universities. Private enterprise, in other words, delivers more equality than the supposedly egalitarian world of academia does.
You are going to read a text about the introduction on how to pay in the future, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A – F for each numbered subheading (41 - 45). There is one extra example which you do use. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points)
Smart cards and mobile phones are quickly emerging as ways to pay with electronic cash.
41. A cash call.
42. Sending money home
43. Energising money
44. How to pay in Tokyo
45. Flashing the plastic
[A] The various "contactless" payment systems rely on a technology called "near-field communication" (NFC). But mobile phones can be much smarter. They can be de-activated remotely; they have a screen which can show information, like a credit balance and product information; they have a keyboard to enter information and they can communicate. This means they can also be used to authorise larger payments by entering PIN codes directly on the handset or topped up with stored credit from an online bank account without having to go to an ATM.
[B] A decade ago some observers predicted that internet banking would render retail banking from high-street branches obsolete. But JPMorgan, Bank of America and others are adamant that people are nowadays using bank branches more than ever. Even if the phone and the smart card replace cash, who gets to collect the fees remains open to contention.
[C] More banking services are also being offered on mobiles. On February 12th, 19 telephone operators with networks in over 100 countries said that people would be able to use their handsets to send money abroad. MasterCard will operate the system in which remittances will be sent as text messages. Sir John Bond, formerly chairman of the HSBC banking group and now chairman of Vodafone, has long been convinced that payments and mobiles would somehow converge. "Mobile phones have the ability to make a dramatic change to village life in Africa," he says.
[D] Unlike the Japanese, Americans prefer to use plastic for their purchases. Cards account for more than half of all transactions, up from 29% a decade ago, according to Nilson Report. More than 1.5 billion credit cards are stuffed into Americans' wallets. The average household has more than ten. Banks and credit-card firms hope to convert more cash and cheque payments to plastic with new smart cards. Some versions are already very successful. Many Americans use EasyPass, in which drivers pay for highway tolls wirelessly.
[E] Nowadays, some of the hottest nightclubs have a new trick for checking the identity of their VIP guests: they send an entry pass in the form of a super bar code to their mobile phones. Mobile phones are becoming an increasingly popular way to make all sorts of payments. In America fans of the Atlanta Hawks have been testing specially adapted Nokia handsets linked to their Visa cards to enter their local stadium and to buy refreshments. It reckons worldwide payments using mobile phones will climb from just $ 3.2 billion in 2003 to more than $ 37 billion by 2008.
[F]To see the potential of mobile-phone money, start in Japan. Most Japanese have at least one credit card, but they tend to stay in their owners' pockets. Housewives routinely peel off crisp YI0 000 ($ 82) notes to pay for their shopping. Utility bills and other invoices are dutifully taken to the bank and paid in cash, or more likely these days at the local convenience store. Yet despite the popularity of cash, the mobile phone is starting to change even Japan's traditional habits."
You are going to read a list of headings and a text about AIDS. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A] What route does HIV take after it enters the body to destroy the immune system?
[B] How and when did the long-standing belief concerning AIDS and HIV crop up?
[C] What is the most effective anti-HIV therapy?
[D] How does HIV subvert the immune system?
[E] In the absence of a vaccine, how can HIV be stopped?
[F] Why does AIDS predispose infected persons to certain types of cancer and infections?
In the 20 years since the first cases of AIDS were detected, scientists say they have learned more about this viral disease than any other.
Yet Peter Piot, who directs the United Nations AIDS program, and Stefano Vella of Rome, president of the International AIDS Society, and other experts say reviewing unanswered questions could prove useful as a measure of progress for AIDS and other diseases.
Among the important broader scientific questions that remain:
A long-standing belief is that cancer cells constantly develop and are held in check by a healthy immune system. But AIDS has challenged that belief. People with AIDS are much more prone to certain cancers like non-Hodgkins lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoms, but not to breast, colon and lung, the most common cancers in the United States. This pattern suggests that an impaired immune system, at least the type that occurs in AIDS, does not allow common cancers to develop.
When HIV is transmitted sexually, the virus must cross a tissue barrier to enter the body. How that happens is still unclear. The virus might invade directly or be carried by a series of different kinds of cells.
Eventually HIV travels through lymph vessels to lymph nodes and the rest of the lymph system. But what is not known is how the virus proceeds to destroy the body's CD-4 cells that are needed to combat invading infectious agents.
Although HIV kills the immune ceils sent to kill the virus, there is widespread variation in the rate at which HIV infected people become ill with AIDS. So scientists ask: Can the elements of the immune system responsible for that variability be identified? If so, can they be used to stop progression to AIDS in infected individuals and possibly prevent infection in the first place?
In theory, early treatment should offer the best chance of preserving immune function. But the new drugs do not completely eliminate HIV from the body so the medicines, which can have dangerous side effects, will have to be taken for a lifetime and perhaps changed to combat resistance. The new policy is expected to recommend that treatment be deferred until there are signs the immune system is weakening.
Is a vaccine possible?
There is little question that an effective vaccine is crucial to controlling the epidemic. Yet only one has reached the stage of full testing, and there is wide controversy over the degree of protection it will provide. HIV strains that are transmitted in various areas of the world differ genetically. It is not known whether a vaccine derived from one type of HIV will confer protection against other types.
Without more incisive, focused behavioral research, prevention messages alone will not put an end to the global epidemic.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlines segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlines segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
One of the most fashionable treatments for disease, gene therapy, has so far made little headway in tackling one of the most modish of illnesses, AIDS and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes it. （46）Even if the virus continued to destroy the patient's immune cells, new ones that could not be infected would replace them. Eventually, the disease would no longer threaten the health of the patient.
A first step towards this has been achieved by researchers at the
The team treated five infected patients who had not responded to at least two different programmes of treatment using conventional anti-retroviral drugs. They removed from each patient's blood the cells called “helper T-cells” that would normally mobilise the immune response to the virus. （48）. This genetic fiddling disrupted the reproduction of the virus inside infected cells.
Such a small experiment was designed merely to establish whether the approach was safe. But the researchers were pleasantly surprised to find that the number of viruses in each patient dropped. This suggests that the treatment was tackling the disease effectively in difficult patients for whom conventional drugs had failed. （49）.
The researchers are now moving to the next phase of study, which will involve more patients, including those whose disease is in its early stages. （50）
Second III Writing
You have just learned that your friend Joe had his ankles injured and was in hospital now. Write a letter to him to convey your concern about his injury.
You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, using "Li Ming" instead. (10 points)
Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in which you should
1) Describe the cartoon,
2) deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture, and
3) give your comments.
You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
Section I Use of English
1. [答案] C 本题考查逻辑关系
[解析]“许多人担心手机及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害”和“缺乏可靠证据”两个分句之间是转折关系，[C]despite的意思是“尽管，不管”，表转折，符合题意。[D]and表并列，虽也说得通，但没有[C]despite贴切。 [A] so表结果，[B]even表递进，均不符合题意。
2. [答案] B 本题考查语义搭配
3. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
[解析]此处意思是“一篇系统性综述是由研究者撰写的”，而[C] performed的意思是carried out“进行(实验等)”，符合题意。
4. [答案] D 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] 这句分句的主语是a systematic review，研究人员进行研究和撰写系统性综述时必须摆事实、讲道理，没有实例，其研究结论也站不住脚，故[D]examples“实例，例证，例子”符合题意。 [B]situations“情形”具有迷惑性，但从整个句子来看，“150个事例”更有说服力。 [A]approaches“方法”和[C]problems“问题”均不符合题意。
5. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] 根据句意可知此处指的是发送医疗保健服务的短信，而[C]delivery的意思是“递送，投递，交付”，符合题意。 [D]discovery“发现”，文中所指并不是发现短信，而是发送短信，故不正确。 [A]reality“事实”和[B]reorganization“重新组织”均不合题意。
6. [答案] A 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] [A]fall into的意思是“分成，变成”，文中意思是“根据用途可以把短信分为三类”，下文即具体列出三类用途;故[A]fall into符合题意。 [B]sum up的意思是“概括，总结”，往往指归纳观点和证词。 [C]associate with“联系起来”和[D]subject to“征服，遭受”均不符合题意，排除。
7. [答案] B 本题考查形近词辨析
[解析]incorporate 的意思是“ 包含，吸收”，通常与介词in或者into搭配。本句话的意思是“通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合”。
8. [答案] B 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] 这一段的第二句举了英国的几项试验：短信提醒功能将手机用户同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了26%到39%，同医院的约会错过率则减少了33%到50%，由此可以推断编发短信可以提高工作效率， [B] boost“增强(某事物)的力量，提高(某事物)的价值”符合题意。[A]rise具有很大的迷惑性，它也有提高的含义，但其是不及物动词，后应接介词，所以排除。 [C] produce“生产”和[D]encourage“鼓励”均不符合题意。
9. [答案]D 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] 句子中的数据只有根据试验才能获得，[D]trials“(对能力、质量、性能等的)测试、试验、考验”符合题意。 [C]cases的意思是“事例”，只通过一些事例，是不能得到精确的数据的，只有通过试验才可以获得。 [A]questions“问题”和[B]incidents“事件”均不符合题意，排除。
10. [答案] A 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] 上文提到利用编发短信来提高工作效率，也就是降低了错过率，[A]reduces“减少”符合题意。 [B]degrades的意思是“降级，下降”，但一般指降低身份;[D]drops的意思是“降落，使 (某物)落下”，均不符合题意。 [C]deserves“应得，值得”不符合题意。
11. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
[解析]在这个条件状语从句中需要补充完整的是such schemes的动作，[C]rolled out的意思是to make a new product available for people to buy or use=launch“推出，推开，发行，启动”，符合题意。[A]called upon的意思是“号召，呼吁”，号召的对象通常是人，而不是such schemes，故不入选。 [B]switched to“转向”和[D]went through“经历，仔细检查”均不符合题意。
12. [答案] A 本题考查动词与介词的搭配
13. [答案] D 本题考查定语从句。
[解析] groups在这里的意思是“人群”，需要填一个关系代词或关系副词以引导定语从句修饰groups,修饰人的关系代词是[D]who。 [C]which常用于修饰某物，所以排除。 [A]what相当于the thing that/the things that，[B]whose是修饰物的所有格，均不符合题意，排除。
14. [答案] B 本题考查动词与介词的搭配
[解析] 这句话意思是“印度已使用短信______国际卫生组织的结核病防控策略”，[B]inform“通知或报告某人(某事)，告诉某人”符合题意。[D]contact表示“接触，交往”，不符合文意。 [A]ask“询问”和[C]adopt“采用”均不符合题意，排除。
15. [答案] A 本题考查动词与介词的搭配
16. [答案] C 本题考查介词用法
[解析]此处意思应该是预防children患上polio，而[C]against有in preparation for(sth.)“为…做准备”之意，符合题意。[A]off、[B]with、[D]in均不符合题意，排除。
17. [答案] A 本题考查逻辑关系
[解析] 文章的第一段讲述了手机短信的三类用途。第二、三段分别是手机短信的第一、第二个功能，那么第三段应该就是最后一个功能，[A]Finally“最后”符合题意，入选。 [B]However“然而，可是”，表转折，但文章此处并无转折含义，故排除;文章第一段提出短信的这些用途可以分为三类，下面三段分别阐述一种短信的用途，如选[D]Obviously“明显地”，就不能体现文章的逻辑结构。 [C]Usually“通常”不符合题意，排除。
18. [答案] D 本题考查固定搭配。
[解析] “服药”的惯用表达是take medicine，故[D]take符合题意，入选。[A]buy、[B]receive、[C]get与medicine搭配都不能表示“服药”的意思，排除。
19. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
[解析] However表转折，说明有关这些手机短信作用效果的例证还不完全可信，[C]anecdotal“多趣闻轶事的，轶事一样的”，anecdotal evidence在心理学上称为“轶事证据”，即粗浅的证据，经常以故事形式出现：比如“我记得那时…”，“我听说…”，这种证据通常不准确、不可靠，故[C]anecdotal符合题意。 [A]unscientific“不科学的”虽然放进句子中也通顺，但需要进一步的定量研究，去证明这些作用是否科学，而不是过早地下定论，故[A]排除。 如选[B]real“真实的”或[D]legal“合法的”，说明有关这些作用效果的例证是真实的或是合法的，而这样的例证是不需要进一步定量研究的，故二者不符合题意，排除。
20. [答案] C本题考查语义搭配[解析]最后一句话中里法特提出更多定量研究是______，[C]needed“需要的”符合题意。 [A]gained和[B]acquired的意思都是“获得的”，放进句子意思不对。[D]given“给予的、特定的”不符合题意，排除。
Section II Reading Comprehension
21. [答案] B
22. [答案] A
23. [答案] C
[解析]推理题。题干中的想法出现在第三段最后一句，从implies一词可知其理由是破折号之间的 thinking的同位语，即所有个体都很重要，任何疾病的发作都要被完全制止，因此选项[C]符合文意。选项[A]的内容只是客观事实，不是这一想法的原因;第三句提到给狼群注射疫苗看似简单，但其实不然，排除[B];第四段第一句介绍了Dan Haydon的观点，显然与题干相对，说明他不赞同这一想法，排除 [D]。
24. [答案] C
25. [答案] D
埃塞俄比亚狼(Ethiopian wolf)就是根据此种方式分群而居的濒危物种之一。它们是世界上最珍稀的食肉动物，居住在贝尔山脉(Bale Mountains)的高地草场上。在贝尔山国家公园的三块由狭窄峡谷相联接的袖珍草场之上，仅存活着350余只埃塞俄比亚狼，另有150余只生存在其他地区。
格拉斯哥大学(University of Glasgow)的丹·何顿(Dan Haydon)及其同事认为，保育生物学家(conservation biologist)们的想法应该不同。除人类以外，种群比个体来得重要。疾病在某些个体中爆发是可以接受的。本周刊登于《自然(Nature)》杂志的一篇论文称，他们基于上述想法，重新提出了计算疫苗接种数的数学方法。
26. [答案] D
27. [答案] D
28. [答案] C
[解析]推理题。第二段的第三句对“Forrester Research”的相关预测进行了介绍。第二段尾句(即第四句)针对“Forrester Research”的预测指出了其中的问题(trouble)之所在。第二段尾句的大意是：“问题在于这样的研究仅考虑到那些已经被移往境外的工作……”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项应该是C。
29. [答案] B
[解析]推理题。本题的答案可以从第三段的尾句、第四段的尾句和尾段的第一、二句中推理得出。第三段的尾句涉及“wages”，第四段的尾句涉及“median wage”和“average wages”，尾段第一、二句涉及“pay gap”以及“the middle-income group”等相关词语。由此可以推断本题的正确选项是B。
30. [答案] D
目前，被外包到海外的不只是蓝领工作，过去被认为不会受国外竞争影响的白领工作也正在被外包到海外。电信费用大幅度下降，使身处遥远地点的工作者与发达世界的客户连接在一起。这能够把以前无法进行交易的服务推向海外。Morgan Stanley的 Roach先生一直注意到这样一个事实，这就是“全球劳动力套利”正在转移到更好的工作种类上。不再仅仅是基本的数据处理和呼叫中心被外包给低工资国家，软件编程，医疗诊断，工程设计，法律，会计，金融和商业咨询也正在被外包给低工资国家。这些现在都可以从世界上任何地方电子化传送。这使得熟练的白领工人面临更大的竞争。
在20世纪80年代以及90年代早期，低收入低技能工人和高收入高技能工人之间的收入差距显著增大了。但是自从那时起，根据David Autor, Lawrence Katz和 Melissa Kearney的一项研究，在美国，英国和德国，底层和顶层的工人比中等收入的工人的表现要好。在印度,办公室清理找不到人手。现在类似于会计这种中等的而且其技能很容易被标准化的工作是被压榨的最厉害的。来自Washington, DC国际经济研究所的Bradford Jensen 和 Lori Kletzer的一项研究则肯定了暴露在外国竞争下的从事可贸易服务的工人势必比那些从事不可贸易的工人和可贸易的制造业工人的技能要求更高。
31. [答案] B
32. [答案] B
33. [答案] A
34. [答案] C
35. [答案] D
了解一种文化中的神话传说可以为了解该文化中人们的信仰及价值观念提供极其重要的深刻见解。通过异想天开 —— 有时甚至是不可思议的故事来创造一种口头传诵的传统，以此来解释自然世界中的种种奇观，警戒后世的年轻人要吸取前人的教训，一个社会就用这种方式将其最为珍视的观点、理念都表露出来。然而，与人们从故事中所得到的教训一样重要的是这些故事中的人物在传递这个信息的过程中所扮演的角色，也就是所起的作用。 或许我们可以从希腊帝国时期被人们不断重复传诵的《伊索寓言》中找到神话的缩影以及它是如何被当成一种工具来传递文化价值观的。伊索是一个奴隶，由于想像力丰富而且他的故事描述逼真而获得王公大臣的宠幸，而他的小故事里的角色几乎专门由各种动物来担纲。如果有人出现在他的故事中，那么这个人几乎总是扮演犯错的笨蛋，故而总是拼命吸取故事中提出的教训。选择这种人物刻画手段以及拟人化手法使我们了解到希腊人将智慧定位于超越人类智力之上的层面上，这意味着深层次的智慧和理解力是人类普遍追求的共同品质，并非人类所固有。 《伊索寓言》的中心主题是谦虚恭谨和自力更生，它反映出，在早期的希腊社会中具有这些品质是非常重要的。作者常用人的愚行来反衬寓言的最终目的，那就是达到对自然以及人性中的真理的更深刻的认识和进一步的理解。例如，一篇很有名的寓言记载了一只狐狸三番五次试图得到一支很高的葡萄藤上的一串葡萄的故事。几次失利之后，狐狸便放弃了，并让自己相信这样一个事实 —— 这串葡萄很可能很酸。与寓言中的狐狸一样，我们常常贬低那些自己做不到的事情，以此寻求心理安慰。这个故事以轻松的形式告诉读者或听众人心灵中的一个弱点，让人们以此为戒。 正如《伊索寓言》揭示出希腊社会里的一些特点一样，其他文化或其他社会中的神话也展现出这些文化各自的内在特征。有关罗马诸神、阿兹特克鬼魂还有欧洲小精灵的故事都在教导先辈这方面发挥了一些作用，教会他们去了解那些对社会非常重要的事情，时至今朝，这些神话故事就像一面镜子，力量无穷，人们通过它去评估、去思忖神话所代表的文化是处于什么样的环境中的。
36. [答案] C
[解析] 词义题。题干中的信号词“powerlessness”，出自于文章第一段第二句话中。文章第一段指出：必须认识到，人们之所以贫穷，不只是因为缺少钱，还因为没有权势;穷人容易受他们所处的社会状况的影响，而不能通过行动来影响社会状况，也就是说不能通过产生于个人的决定和计划中的行动来影响社会状况。这说明:作者最可能的意思是说“穷人不能通过行动来影响社会状况”。[C]项中说“ are not in a condition to change their present situation”, 这与文章的意思相符。
37. [答案] C
[解析] 细节题。作者在第一段中指出:人们之所以贫穷，不只是因为缺少钱，还因为没有权势;穷人容易受他们所处的社会状况的影响，而不能通过行动来影响社会状况;解决贫穷建议最多的方法就是帮助穷人确保挣更多的钱而不改变目前的权力关系;但是，因为贫穷的结果与没有权势有关，并不是与穷人可用的钱的实际供给有关，所以，在一个富裕社会，如果不伴有其他措施，增加穷人收入的解决方法可能不会产生效果。这说明,作者认为，“帮助穷人确保挣更多的钱而不改变目前的权力关系”这种方法可能不会产生效果。[C]项中说“it is no use raising the incomes of the poor while not improve their state of powerlessness”，这与作者的观点相符。
38. [答案] D
[解析] 细节题。文章第二段指出:为了减少贫穷，较大的社团将不得不改变其同贫穷的邻居之间的关系;文章第三段指出:一个社团应该给贫穷的邻居提供早期的物质支持，这些活动应该包括一些组织的组织者，那些组织者能够使邻居迅速创建穷人的有影响、独立、民主的组织。这说明，作者认为，较大社团的主要作用是在创建穷人的民主组织方面提供帮助。[D]项中说“to lend experienced advice in the formation of democratic self-help organizations”，这与作者的观点相符。
40. [答案] C
[解析]主旨题。作者在第一段提到了对解决贫穷的方法的看法，认为这些方法可能没有效果;在第二段，作者提出了自己的扶贫方法;第三段讲的是较大的社团在帮助贫穷的邻居时应该采取的方法。这说明:作者写本文的主要目的是探讨如何扶贫。[C]项中说“to propose a way in which the poor can be more effectively helped”，这与作者的目的相符
为了减少贫穷 — 这是与美国的心理和社会有关的问题，较大的社团将不得不改变其同贫穷的邻居之间的关系，他们采用这样的方式：邻居的家庭对更广泛的社会有更浓厚的兴趣，这些家庭能更成功地参与周围社团的决定过程。帮助穷人的社会行为应该具有以下特点：穷人应把他们自己当作行动的源泉;行为应该以更多的方式影响社会团体和那些确定穷人范围者的偏见;行动应该在作用或技能方面多提要求;行动应当成功，成功的、自发的重要行动将增强穷人的潜在价值感以及穷人的个体力量。
41. D 42. G 43. B 44. C 45. E
41. A 42. D 43. F 44. E 45. B
41. E 42. C 43. A 44. F 45. D
41. F 42. A 43. D 44. C 45. E
科学家说, 在第一批艾滋病例被发现以后的20年里, 他们对这种病毒性疾病的了解, 已超过其他任何一种病毒性疾病。
但是, 联合国艾滋病规划署的负责人彼得?皮奥和国际艾滋病学会会长罗马的斯特凡诺?韦拉及其他一些专家都认为, 全面考察那些未决问题, 可能对艾滋病和其他疾病治疗的进展是一项有益的举措。
一种传统的说法是, 癌细胞在人体内不断繁殖, 但受到健康免疫系统的控制。艾滋病的情况却不是这样。艾滋病人很容易患非何杰金氏淋巴瘤和卡波西氏肉瘤, 但不易患在美国最常见的乳腺癌、结肠癌和肺癌等。这说明, 受损的免疫系统(至少是艾滋病患者的免疫系统), 可以抑制普通癌细胞的发展。
艾滋病病毒侵入人体后通过什么途径摧毁免疫系统?当艾滋病病毒通过性接触传播时, 病毒必须穿过组织屏障进入人体。这个过程目前尚不清楚。病毒可能直接侵入, 或许由一系列不同种类的细胞带入。最终, 艾滋病病毒穿过淋巴管到淋巴结和淋巴系统的其他部分。但病毒是如何摧毁人体内负责打击入侵传染体的CD-4细胞的, 目前还无法确定。
艾滋病病毒能杀死对付自己的免疫细胞, 但艾滋病病毒携带者患艾滋病的快慢却大不相同。因此科学家提出问题：免疫系统中那些使人患艾滋病时间出现差异的因素能否被识别出来?如果能, 它们能否用于制止艾滋病患者病情的恶化, 甚至在最初就可能防止人们感染艾滋病病毒?
从理论上来说, 尽早治疗可以提供维护免疫功能的最佳时机。但是新药物无法彻底清除体内的艾滋病病毒, 因此患者不得不终身服用这些具有危险副作用的药物, 而且还可能在产生抗药性时改服别的药物。因此新的方法可能建议在免疫系统出现衰退迹象时才开始治疗。
毫无疑问, 一种有效的疫苗是控制这种瘟疫的关键。但是目前只有一种疫苗进入了全面检验的阶段, 而对其会有多大的保护功能, 却有着很大的争议。世界各地流行的艾滋病在遗传类型上各不相同, 目前还不清楚, 从某种艾滋病病毒获得的疫苗能否防止其他类型的艾滋病。
Second III Writing
I feel so awfully worried that your legs were injured in accident. I learned that your right ankle was seriously swollen so you can't put your weight on your feet. I hope you'll be feeling a great deal better by the time this letter reaches you. Anyway, you've been robust and healthy and you will recover soon. I am enclosing a funny comic in the letter so that it can help kill your time and you'll forget your pains momentarily, I hope you will like it. I will come to see you when I am free.
With best wishes for your swift return to be healthy.
This cartoon presents in front of us a sharp contrast between two types of neighbors. The two lonely human neighbors seek to hold onto an attitude of indifference towards each other, while the two pet neighbors offer polite and amiable greetings.
When we take a walk in any big cities in the modern society, we may often notice such a sad scene in which social etiquettes of great necessity have been dramatically diminishing. Since most people in most communities are urged to live on an on-the-move lifestyle, they are probably denied opportunities to share their feelings with their friends and relatives and it is inevitable that their pets serve as their good companions. Where there are so many dishonesties going around, they prefer to stay with a dog, which is likely to be faithful to them, particularly in dark situations. An individual appears to be acting ridiculous if he starts conversations with his neighbors, so he often has no alternative but to enjoy the company of his pet dog. That's why the scene depicted in the cartoon is not uncommon in our daily life.
Our life would be, of course, enjoyable if we have pets. But we would enjoy much more meaningful life in a more harmonious world if the two human neighbors started a talk to each other in a friendly way, just like the two dogs.www.59wj.com 如果觉得《2017年考研英语模拟试题及答案详细解析》模拟试题,kaoyan不错，可以推荐给好友哦。